Directions: When we share stories about things we have done or situations we have been in, we are doing so much more than just providing anecdotes! We are using our past experiences, or our background knowledge, to make connections to the present time (as well as to make choices that work for us!).
Background knowledge is what we use to make decisions in everything we do all day long...and also to answer questions we have while doing so! Our past experiences help us decide what to do in everything from choosing foods at the grocery store to selecting the right present for a close friend.
Our background knowledge also fuels the types of questions we may ask while we complete these tasks!
Let's take a moment to discuss how this works!
When we tell or write down an anecdote, we also make inferences, which is what we do when we try to make sense of something. When you tell a story about how long you were stuck in traffic, there are a number of inferences we can all make depending on our own experiences (our background knowledge).
For instance, people who travel long distances in traffic know exactly how it feels to sit in a car, on a bike, or on public transportation for long periods of time, and they could infer any of the following:
1. It takes patience to sit in traffic for a long period of time, but it can be done.
2. It can be nice to listen to music while traveling in the car, or it could be enjoyable talking to other people while using public transportation.
3. It can be peaceful to sit on a bus or train and read an interesting book while traveling a long distance.
4. It can be stressful to worry about not getting to work or an appointment on time; we don't want to be late!
5. It can be considered just another aspect of going to work, something you just have to do as part of your normal day, and it is not negative or positive.
Do you see how many choices there could be for the same situation? These choices exist because we are all individuals who have had different experiences that led to a particular way of thinking or behaving!
When you hear about someone being stuck in traffic, what would your reaction be? This type of inference has no right or wrong answer; it just gives us more information about your own experiences and allows us to predict how you may deal with things in the future. We can then make an inference about what you will do in another situation!
Telling anecdotes allows us to do all of the above....and listening to anecdotes also allows us to do the very same thing! We go through all the same steps of having an experience, asking ourselves questions about that experience, making inferences about what to do during that experience, and coming to a conclusion of how that experience went. Then we tell others about this experience, often to connect with them or to communicate something we have learned.
You already know how to do all of this and so much more! You are already a master of the anecdote!
Directions: Select a situation from the list below, and write an anecdote about it. Think back to something that happened to you or someone you know, and use this experience to write an anecdote that will communicate your feeling to others as well as serve a purpose.
1. You see someone driving erratically on the highway and it almost causes an accident.
2. Your friend is in a silly mood and does something out of character for him/her that embarrasses you.
3. You go to the store to buy something in particular and think it will be a short trip, but you end up running into someone you have not seen in a very long time.
4. You have an unusual meeting with your child's teacher OR you run into a teacher you once had when you were in elementary school and discover something you never realized back then.
5. You do something you have always been afraid or too shy or too uncomfortable to do!
6. You think you know everything about a good friend of yours, but you either hear gossip or you uncover a secret that was always kept from you.
7. You are eating in a restaurant when you suddenly find a bug (or something else!) in your food!
8. You have an argument with someone and later realize you were wrong.
9. The cashier gives you the incorrect amount of money back, and it is quite a bit more than you should have received.
10. You decide to do the right thing when everyone around you is not.
11. You have a wonderful time at a special event that you will remember forever!
Review of Terms
1. True False Paraphrasing is what you do when you put something into your own words without adding your own opinion.
2. True False An anecdote is a story you tell that can prove a point, entertain others, warn everyone, or simply tell others an interesting situation you just went through.
3. True False When you write down the exact words someone has said, you should put apostrophes around their words.
4. True False An example of making an inference is the following: While reading a story, you imagine what the character will do next based on what you have already found out about him.
5. True False Foreshadowing is when you give clues regarding what happened in the past.
6. True False We bring our background knowledge to every book we read, which means we think of our own experiences to make sense of what is happening in the story and to often form a connection with a character or situation being described.
7. True False An anecdote is generally nonfiction.
Idiom of the Day:
Sonny was on cloud nine when he passed the test.
Idiom of the Day #2:
I know she means well, but she is always telling him what to do. I think she should cut him some slack.
Persuasive Writing in Review
Directions: Finish the persuasive paragraph that follows.
All health care should be free. People work hard to earn enough money to pay their bills and purchase food for their families. They should not have to worry about how they will be able to afford expensive doctor bills. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Write at least two more sentences that prove the opening topic sentence should be agreed with! Then write a solid closing sentence that makes an interesting point! Good luck!
Directions: Here is a brief review of skills we covered in class this week. In addition, there are directions on the Resources page on this website for continuing your reading assessments on commonlit.org. The class code is listed for those of you who have not yet created an account, and instructions are given on how to proceed. Since we have a presentation from Middlesex Community College at 10AM, you may not finish everything this morning, but we can continue after vacation. Have a great week off!
1. Find the adverbs in the following sentences.
Note: Adverbs can the following types:
manner - how something is done, such as happily
place - where something is, such as there
time - when something happened, such as today (if used in this way-- Jeffrey came by today.)
negation - when you wish to negate or cancel out the meaning in a sentence with words such as not or never
affirmation - when you wish to affirm something you are saying is accurate or emphasize that what you are saying is true, using words such as really
a. Jim quickly changed the subject because he did not want to talk about his job with Chris.
b Randy would never leave someone out of a conversation.
c. Carlos will arrive soon.
d I will see Joan tomorrow.
e. The deer ran swiftly through the woods.
f. Come here, please.
g. I truly enjoyed hearing your essays yesterday. (Note: There are two adverbs in this sentence!)
Now, using the sentences above (from a to g) find the following:
1. a conjunction (that connects a clause)
2. a proper noun
3. a preposition (that leads to a phrase)
4. the sentence in which a subject is not listed, but it is understood
5. direct objects (Note: First find the verb in the sentence, and then ask yourself what or whom is receiving the action, as in the example Tom threw the football. Football is the direct object.)
6. pronouns (that take the place of nouns)
Directions: Select the best answer to each of the following questions.
a. When you are given a baker's dozen of donuts, your box will contain:
1. 12 donuts
2. Dunkin' Donuts
3. no donuts
4. 13 donuts
b. If someone is crying wolf all the time, what is likely to occur?
1. People will not believe her when she is finally telling the truth.
2. She will become too hoarse to speak.
3. She will get what she wants.
c. The theme of a story could be:
1. If you try hard enough, you can achieve anything.
2. Tom and Susan lived happily ever after.
3. The house was situated directly on a beautiful lake.
d. Paraphrasing is a method of taking words you have read or heard and then writing or saying them your own way without changing the meaning. When you paraphrase, you do not need to put quotation marks around what you are saying because you are not writing down someone else's words exactly.
Question: Which of the following does NOT have to do with paraphrasing:
1. reading a sentence carefully for meaning
2. deciding how to write what you have just read in your own way
3. copying something someone said exactly as written and pretend his words are yours
e. True False A speaker implies and a listener infers.
f. True False When you have an epiphany, something you expected all along has taken place.
g. An example of onomatopoeia is:
2. Super job!
3. No way!
Quick Creative Writing Exercise:
Please finish the story below. If possible, try to copy the words down in your notebook to get a jumpstart on point of view, mood, and plot. Write two or more solid sentences, remembering to keep them parallel with the sentences already typed below.
Sal could not wait for spring break! His bags were already packed, and his rental car would arrive soon. In fact, when the doorbell rang, he thought it was his friend Jerry, on time as usual and eager to accompany Sal on his trip. But when he opened the door ____________________________________________________________________________________
Have fun creating the rest of this story!
Go to the Resources Page next for information on how to work on your Reading Assessment and/or articles I programmed for you on commonlit.org. You will be able to continue from where you left off yesterday!
1. Idiom of the Day: I enjoy visiting the bakery in town; they give you a baker's dozen of donuts rather than the usual 12!
2. Idiom of the Day #2: Sara did not know whether to believe her sister when she told her she saw a wild animal in the woods. She had cried wolf far too often.
3. Literary Terms:
Paraphrasing: This occurs when you put something you've heard or read into your own words. You would still maintain the same meaning the author had in mind, but you are using different words to express the same thoughts.
Infer/Inference: After you read a sentence or more, you often decide, from the clues you have been given, what the author is trying to say or which way the story will go. When you do this, you are making an inference.
For instance, if you read about someone limping after being in an accident, you would infer that person has gotten hurt.
Another example would be if you read that a character in a story suddenly packs up all her belongings and begins to write a note. You would likely infer she is leaving her home for good!
In both cases, the author did not have to tell you that the person was hurt in the accident or that the character packing up her belongings was leaving forever. The details given caused you to draw on your own knowledge that when people do these things, these are the results that happen most often.
Note: Listeners and readers make inferences.
Imply/Implication: When you write a story or talk to someone and say something in a roundabout way (which means you do not come right out and say it directly), you are implying something.
An example could be: A commercial on TV shows a group of people laughing and joking around at a party while people drink a certain soft drink. The advertisers for the commercial are implying that you will also have a wonderful like like that if you buy their product!
Note: Speakers and writers imply.
Epiphany: This is a sudden realization or discovery that a person or a character in a story may have.
An example could be one I always use: When I had my children, I looked at each of them and could not believe they were mine! I felt as though I would want to protect them forever. This moment was an epiphany for me; I suddenly understood what it meant to be a mom!
Theme: Fictional stories are often told or written with an idea or feeling in mind, which the author wants to leave with the listener or reader.
An example would be: Treat others the way you want to be treated. Or: If you try hard enough, you will succeed.
Notice that story characters or events are NOT mentioned in the theme. In fact, one theme can be applied to many stories! It is similar to a lesson you learn after you read a book or watch a movie!
4. Quick Review of Tuesday's Skills:
a. When I open a comic book and see expressions like "Wham!" or "Splat!," I am reading examples of
(onomatopoeia, alliteration, foreshadowing).
b. When an author drops clues throughout a story about what could happen later, he is using
(onomatopoeia, alliteration, foreshadowing).
c. When I say "Simon says stop standing," I am using
(onomatopoeia, alliteration, foreshadowing).
d. If two people are making a decision together, and one suddenly tells the other "The ball is now in your court," he means:
1. The second person should get ready to pass the basketball.
2. The second person now has control over what to do next.
3. It's time to play pickup basketball at the park.
e. If you get bitten by a snake, you may need one of the following:
b. antibacterial soap
1. Idiom of the Day:
Daniel wished he hadn't broken the vase (because now he had to replace it), but that's the way the cookie crumbles.
2. Idiom of the Day #2:
Sally and Tamika had been friends for a long time, but recently, they had an argument. Sally reached out to Tamika several times to try and speak to her, but Tamika refused to answer. Sally then texted Tamika, "I really want to talk to you, but this is the last time I'm going to try. The ball is now in your court."
3. Grammar Challenge: Can you add an adverb to each of the sentences below?
a. Bobby walked down the hallway _____________________. (adverb of manner)
b. Franny bought some gifts_____________ and wrapped them all_____________________. (adverb of manner or time)
c. I will see you_________________. (adverb of time)
d. Tomas said he drove _________________(one adverb of place).
e. I will _____________________ watch that movie again. (adverb of negation)
f. Sydney _________________ loves shopping; she goes to the mall four times a week! (adverb of affirmation)
4. Appositive Review: Can you add an appositive to the following sentences?
Example: Rocco is my friend. Example with appositive: Rocco, a young man from Naples, Italy, is my friend.
a. Have you ever wanted to visit Alaska?
b. Did you notice that the car needed to be repaired?
c. Scott's children were visiting from Ireland.
f. Her sister decided to visit during the break.
5. Clause Review: Can you add a clause to each of the following sentences?
a. The store was out of shopping carts.
b. Mandi did not like to be in the sun too long.
c. Jillian loved the beach.
d. My phone was not ringing when calls came in.
6. Literary Device: Onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia is the use of a word that sounds like what is being described.
Examples: Swish! Crack! Meow! Zap! Hiss! Fizz!
In fact, if you have read comics/comic books, you will notice many words used on their pages would fall under this category! But these are not the only places you would find onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia can be found in all types of writing; poetry, for example, may include onomatopoeia to indicate sound.
7. Greek Root of the Day:
Examples: antibacterial, antidote, antisocial
Sentences: She used antibacterial hand soap so that she would not catch an illness.
The antidote for the snakebite was provided at the hospital.
Being quiet at parties can sometimes seem like antisocial behavior, but often the person is just very shy!
8. Here is a list of more topics for your persuasive essays! At this point, you should have several essays in your folder and can choose from any of them to revise into final form. If you are not completely finished at this point, please select a new topic right now, and begin a new draft. You will have time during the second half of class today to go over any edits and revisions with me, but a final copy must be in your folder by Friday.
A new unit of writing, which I think you will enjoy, will begin right after vacation!
Possible Topics for your Persuasive Essay:
a. Should elementary schools have dress codes?
b. Are there any traffic signs or rules and regulations you would change?
c. Is there a special tradition you take part in that you think everyone would find enjoyable?
d. Is there a change to public transportation you feel should be made?
e. Should all high schools or colleges accept every student, regardless of their test scores?
f. Is being a vegan/vegetarian a healthful option?
g. Is it better to use a pen or to use a keyboard while you are writing creatively?
Remember--the above sentences are only topics. This means you can turn them into topic sentences by deciding what you believe about these questions. Your answer (statement) then becomes the main idea you want others to agree with! Your three body paragraphs will provide the three most important reasons or evidence that will back up your topic sentence. The stronger the reasons you give, the stronger your topic sentence will be. In the end, you want your reader to be persuaded by the effectiveness of your writing! At best, you want your reader to agree with you; at the very least, you want them to understand your point of view and why you think the way you do! Either way, you have a good chance of winning someone over, and that is, of course, the point of all persuasive writing!
Today's board will be a review of Tuesday's work! Enjoy!
Review of Skills Board April 4, 2023:
1. If something happens that causes you to bite your tongue, you
a. might need to see a dentist soon!
b. ate your food a bit too fast.
c. will stop yourself from saying what you'd really like to say.
2 When someone is crying over spilt milk, they
a. should forget what just happened and continue on with the day.
b. may need to get over to Market Basket soon to pick up a half gallon.
c. should find something else to cry about.
3. When the star was asked for his autograph, he probably
a. wrote his friend's name on a slip of paper.
b. said no.
c. signed his name for his fans to keep.
4. One meaning of the word graph is to
5. Pencils used to contain lead, but now they contain a form of carbon called
6. If we looked at the demographics of an area, we might find a listing of people's
b. house colors
c. foods they wanted for supper that night
7. The following is an example of hyperbole:
a. The outdoor breeze seemed to hiss at me through my screen door.
b. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
c. Nothing in this world makes any sense!
Bonus: Which literary devices are used in the sentences above that you did not select?
8. True or False:
a. The topic sentence always has to go first in a paragraph. (True, False)
b. The body of an essay is made up of the three or more middle paragraphs that come after the introduction and before the conclusion. (True, False)
c. Your last sentence in an essay does not need to make an impact on the reader. (True, False)
d. You should state your opinion clearly in an essay; you do not have to say "I think" when you write about your topic.
e. Even though not all essays contain five paragraphs, you should include five of them when you are preparing for the HiSET; this will immediately indicate to the person marking your test that you understand how to organize your thoughts effectively.
9. Grammar Review ( More True or False) :
a. A common noun does not need to be capitalized. (True, False)
b. A proper noun can be a title of a specific place, such as Trum Field. (True, False)
c. All adverbs have -ly at the end of their spelling. (True, False)
d. Tomorrow is an adverb. (True, False)
e. The word am is a verb of being. (True, False)
f. Jump is a verb of being. (True, False)
g. The word store is always a verb. (True, False)
h. In the following sentence, baseball is a direct object: Manny hit the baseball and scored a home run. (True, False)
i. In the previous sentence about Manny, can you name a second direct object?
10. Phrase or Clause:
a. in the dark, dreary room _______________________________________________
b. as I walked through the new store _______________________________________
c. while I waited for the bus ______________________________________________
d. for my parents _______________________________________________________
e. because I had some extra time __________________________________________
f. after class ___________________________________________________________
g. so I could finally finish the review questions for the day ____________________
Hope you enjoyed this review!!